Doug Steinley

Doug Steinley
Professor
21 McAlester Hall
Lab Area: 
Research Interests: 

My research focuses on multivariate statistical methodology, with a primary interest in cluster analysis and social network analysis. My research in cluster analysis focuses on both traditional cluster analytic procedure (e.g., k-means cluster analysis) and more modern techniques (e.g., mixture modeling). In that the formulation of the general partitioning problem can be thought of in a graph theoretic nature, my research also involves combinatorics and social network analysis.

Selected Publications: 

METHODS DEVELOPMENT: CLUSTER ANALYSIS/MIXTURE MODELING/LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS

Steinley, D., & Brusco, M. J. (in press). Using iterative reallocation partitioning to detect test multidimensionality. Journal of Classification.

Brusco, M. J., Shireman, E., & Steinley, D. (in press). A comparison of latent class, K-means, and K-median method for clustering dichotomous data. Psychological Methods.

Brown, N., Park, S., Steinley, D., & Davis-Stober, C. P. (in press). Modeling between-subject variability in decision strategies via statistical clustering: A p-median approach.  Journal of Behavioral Decision Making

Shireman, E., Steinley, D., & Brusco, M. J. (2017). Examining the effect of initialization strategies on the performance of mixture modeling.  Behavior Research Methods, 49, 282--293.

Brusco, M. J., Singh, R., Cradit, J. D., & Steinley, D. (2017).  Cluster validation in empirical OM research: Survey and recommendations.  International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 37, 300--320.

Brusco, M., Shireman, E., Steinley, D., Brudvig, S., & Cradit, J. D. (2017). An iterated local search heuristic for Gaussian model-based partitioning.  British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 70,1--24.

Steinley, D. (2016). K-medoids and other criteria for crisp clustering.  In C. Hennig, M. Melia, F. Murtagh, & R. Rocci (eds.), Handbook of cluster analysis, (pp. 55--66).  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Shireman, E. M., Steinley, D. & Brusco, M. J. (2016). Local optima in mixture modeling.  Multivariate Behavioral Research, 51, 466--481.

Guerra-Pena, K., & Steinley, D. (2016). Extracting spurious latent classes in growth mixture modeling with normal errors. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 6, 933--953..

Hofmans, J., Ceulemans, E., Steinley, D., & Van Mechelen, I. (2015).  On the added value of bootstrap analysis for K-means clustering. Journal of Classification, 32, 268--284.

Brusco, M. J., Kohn, H.-F., & Steinley, D. (2015). An exact method for partitioning dichotomous items within the framework of the monotone homogeneity model. Psychometrika, 80, 949--967.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2015). Affinity propagation and uncapacitated facility location problems. Journal of Classification, 32, 443--480.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2014). Model selection for minimum-diameter partitioning.  British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 67, 471--495.

Steinley, D. (2013).  Discussion of ``How to find an appropriate clustering for mixed type variables with application to socio-economic stratification (Hennig & Liao)''. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, C, 62, 358--359.

Brusco, M. J., Steinley, D., Cradit, J. D., & Singh, R. (2012). Emergent clustering methods for empirical OM research. Journal of Operations Management, 30, 454--466.

Steinley, D., Brusco, M. J., & Henson, R. A. (2012). Principal cluster axes: A projection pursuit index for the preservation of cluster structures in the presence of data reduction. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 47, 463-492.

Steinley, D., & Brusco, M. J. (2011). Evaluating the performance of model-based clustering: Recommendations and cautions. Psychological Methods, 16, 63-79.

Steinley, D., & Brusco, M. J. (2011). K-means clustering and model-based clustering: Reply to McLachlan and Vermunt. Psychological Methods, 16, 89-92.

Steinley, D., & Brusco, M. J. (2011). Testing for validity and choosing the number of clusters in K-means clustering. Psychological Methods, 16, 285-297.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2010). K-balance partitioning: An exact method with applications to generalzied structural balance and other psychological constructs. Psychological Methods, 15, 124-144.

Hubert, L., Koehn, H.-F., & Steinley, D. (2010). Order-constrained proximity matrix representations: Ultrametric generalizations and constructions with MATLAB. In S. Kolenikov, D. Steinley, & L. Thombs (Eds.), Current methodological developments of statistics in the social sciences, (pp. 81-112). New York: Wiley.

Kohn, H.-F., Steinley, D., & Brusco, M. J. (2010). The p-median model as a tool for clustering psychological data. Psychological Methods, 15, 87-95.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2009). Cross validation issues in multiobjective clustering. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 62, 349-368.

Hubert, L., Koehn, H.-F., & Steinley, D. (2009). Cluster analysis: A toolbox for MATLAB. In R. Millsap & A. Maydeu-Olivares (Eds.), Handbook of quantitative methods in psychology, (pp. 444-512). Rivserside, CA: Sage.

Brusco, M. J., Cradit, J. D., Steinley, D., & Fox, G. (2008). Cautionary remarks on the use of clusterwise regression. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 43, 29-49.

Steinley, D. (2008). Stability analysis in K-means clustering. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 61, 255-273.

Steinley, D., & Brusco, M. J. (2008). A new variable weighting and selection procedure for K-means cluster analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 43, 77-108.

Steinley, D., & Brusco, M. J. (2008). Selection of variables in cluster analysis: An empirical comparison of eight procedures. Psychometrika, 73, 125-144.

Steinley, D., & Hubert, L. (2008). Order constrained solutions in K-means clustering: Even better than being globally optimal. Psychometrika, 73,647-664.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2007). A comparison of heuristic procedures for minimum within-cluster sums of squares partitioning. Psychometrika, 72, 583-600.

Steinley, D. (2007). Validating clusters with the lower bound for sum of squares error. Psychometrika, 72, 93-106.

Steinley, D., & Brusco, M. J. (2007). Initializing K-means batch clustering: A critical evaluation of several techniques. Journal of Classification, 24, 99-121.

Steinley, D., & McDonald, R. P. (2007). Examining factor score distributions to determine the nature of latent spaces. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 133-156.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2006). Clustering, seriation, and subset extraction of confusion data. Psychological Methods, 11, 271-286.

Steinley, D. (2006). K-means clustering: A half-century synthesis. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 59, 1-34. 

Steinley, D. (2006). Profiling local optima in K-means clustering: Developing a diagnostic technique. Psychological Methods, 11, 178-192.

Steinley, D., & Henson, R. (2005). OCLUS: An analytic method for generating clusters with known overlap. Journal of Classification, 22, 221-250.

Steinley, D. (2004). Standardizing variables in K-means clustering. In D. Banks, L. House, F. R. McMorris, P. Arabie, W. Gaul (eds.), Classification, clustering, and data mining applications (pp. 53-60). New York: Springer.

Steinley, D. (2003). Local optima in K-means clustering: What you don't know may hurt you. Psychological Methods, 8, 294-304.

METHODS DEVELOPMENT: NETWORK ANALYSIS

Brusco, M. J., Stolze, H. J., Hoffman, M., & Steinley, D. (2017).  A simulated annealing heuristic for the maximum correlation core/periphery partitioning of binary networks.  PLoS One, 12, e0170448.

Gates, K. M., Henry, T., Steinley, D., & Fair, D. (2016).  A Monte Carlo simulation study comparing weighted community detection algorithms.  Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, 10https://doi.org/10.3389/fninf.2016.00045

Brusco, M. J., Doreian, P., & Steinley, D. (2016). Biclustering methods for one-mode asymmetric matrices. Behavior Research Methods, 48, 487–-502.

Hoffman, M., Steinley, D., & Brusco, M. J. (2015). A note on using the adjusted Rand index for link prediction in networks.  Social Networks, 42, 72--79.

Brusco, M. J., Doriean, P., Lloyd, P. & Steinley, D. (2013).  A variable neighborhood search method for deterministic two-mode blockmodeling. Network Science, 1, 191--212. 

Brusco, M. J., Doriean, P., Mrvar, A., & Steinley, D. (2013). An exact algorithm for blockmodeling of two-mode network data.  Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 37, 61-84. 

Brusco, M. J., Doriean, P., Steinley, D., & Satornino, C. (2013). Multiobjective blockmodeling for social network analysis.  Psychometrika, 78, 498--525.

Brusco, M. J., Doreian, P., Mrvar, A., & Steinley, D. (2011). Two algorithms for relaxed structural partitioning: Linking theory, models and data to understand social network phenomena. Sociological Methods and Research, 40, 57-87. 

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2011). A tabu search heuristic for deterministic two-mode blockmodeling of binary network matrices. Psychometrika, 74, 612-633.

Steinley, D., Brusco, M. J., & Wasserman, S. (2011). Clusterwise p* models for network data. Statistical Analysis and Data Mining, 4, 487-496.

Steinley, D., & Wasserman, S. (2011). Introduction to special issue of Statistical Analysis and Data Mining on social networks. Statistical Analysis and Data Mining, 4, 459-460.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2009). Integer programs for one- and two-mode blockmodeling based on prespecified image matrices for structural and regular equivalence. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53, 577-585.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2007). Exact and approximate algorithms for part-machine clustering based on a relationship between interval graphs and Robinson matrices. IIE Transactions, 39, 925-935. 

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2007). An evaluation of a variable-neighborhood search method for blockmodeling of two-mode binary matrices based on structural equivalence. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 51, 325-338.

Wasserman, S., Robins, G., & Steinley, D. (2007). Statistical models for networks: A brief review of some recent research. In E. Airoldi, D. M. Blei, S. E. Fienberg, A. Goldenberg, E. P. Xing, & A. X. Zheng (Eds.), Social network analysis: Models, issues, and new directions (pp. 45-56). New York: Springer.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2006). Inducing a blockmodel structure on two-mode data using seriation procedures Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 50, 468-477.

Steinley, D., & Wasserman, S. (2006). Approximate distributions of several common graph statistics: Hypothesis testing applied to a terrorist network. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Statistical Applications in Defense and National Security. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Wasserman, S., Pattison, P., & Steinley, D. (2005). Social network analysis. In Everett, B., & Howell, D. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Statistics in the Behavioral Science, Vol. 4, 1866-1871. New York: Wiley.

Wasserman, S., & Steinley, D. (2003). Sensitivity analysis of social network data and methods: Some preliminary remarks. In R. Breiger, K. Carley, & P. Pattison (eds.) Dynamic social network modeling and analysis (pp. 197-208). Washington DC: The National Academies Press.

METHODS DEVELOPMENT: AGREEMENT INDICES

Steinley, D., Brusco, M. J, & Hubert, L. (2016).  The variance of the adjusted Rand index. Psychological Methods, 21, 261--272.

Steinley, D., Hendrickson, G., & Brusco, M. J. (2015).  A note on maximizing the agreement between partitions: A step-wise optimal algorithm and some properties. Journal of Classification, 32, 114--126.

Brusco, M. J., Stahl, S., & Steinley, D. (2008). An implicit enumeration method for an exact test of weighted Kappa. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 61, 439-452.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2008). A binary integer program to maximize the agreement between partitions. Journal of Classification, 25, 185-193.

Steinley, D. (2004). Properties of the Hubert-Arabie adjusted Rand index. Psychological Methods, 9, 386-396.

METHODS DEVELOPMENT: VARIABLE SELECTION/REGRESSION/MULTIVARIATE METHODS

Brusco, M. J., Kohn, H.-F., & Steinley, D. (2016). An evaluation of exact methods for the multiple subset maximum cardinality selection problem.  British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 69, 194--213.

Wood, P. K., Steinley, D., & Jackson, K. M. (2015).  Right-sizing statistical models for longitudinal data.  Psychological Methods, 20, 470--488.

Brusco, M. J., Kohn, H.-F., & Steinley, D. (2013). Exact and approximate algorithms for a one-dimensional minimax bin-packing problem.  Annals of Operations Research, 206, 611--626. 

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2012). A note on the estimation of the Pareto efficient set for multiobjective matrix permutation problems. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 65, 145-162.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2011). Exact and approximate algorithms for variable selection in linear discriminant analysis. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 55, 123-131.

Brusco, M. J., & Steinley, D. (2010). Hierarchically well-formulated best subsets for polynomial regression: A variable neighborhood search heuristic wtih embedded constrained tabu search. Naval Logistics Quarterly, 57, 33-44.

Kolenikov, S., Steinley, D., & Thombs, L. A. (Editors) (2010). Current methodological developments of statistics in the social sciences. New York: Wiley.

Rouder, J. N., Speckman, P., Steinley, D., Pratte, M.S., & Morey, R. D. (2010). A resampling test of shape invariance across distributions. In S. Kolenikov, D. Steinley, & L. Thombs, (Eds.), Current methodological developments of statistics in the social sciences, (pp. 159-174). New York: Wiley.

Brusco, M. J., Steinley, D., & Cradit, J. D. (2009). Best subsets regression using branch-and-bound methods: Model selection criteria, computational feasibility, and extension to polynomial regression. Technometrics, 51, 306-315.

Brusco, M. J., Singh, R., & Steinley, D. (2009). Variable neighborhood search heuristics for selecting a subset of variables in principal components analysis. Psychometrika, 74, 705-726.

Steinley, D. (2006). Curse of dimensionality. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics (pp. 209-211). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Steinley, D. (2006). Eigenvalues. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics (pp. 309-310). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

APPLICATIONS

Weaver, C. C., Haeny, A. M., Martinez, J. A., Steinley, D., & Sher, K. J. (2017). Is the deliberate induction of alcohol tolerance associated with negative alcohol outcomes?  Addictive Behaviors, 65, 98--101.

Winograd, R. P., Steinley, D., Lane, S. P., & Sher, K. J. (2017). An experimental investigation of drunk personality using sober and drunk self reports. Clinical Psychological Science, 5, 439--456.

Steinley, D., Lane, S. P., & Sher, K. J. (2016). Determining optimal diagnostic criteria through chronicity and comorbidity.  In Silico Pharmacology, 4, 1--12.

Winograd, R. P., Steinley, D., & Sher, K. (2016). Searching for Mr. Hyde: A Five-Factor Approach to Characterizing ``Types of Drunk''. Addiction Research & Theory, 24, 1--8.

Lane, S. P., Steinley, D., & Sher, K. (2016). Consistency of the DSM AUD criteria severities: Structural consistency is only ``skin deep''. Psychological Medicine, 46, 1769--1784.

Scherer, L.D., Caverly, T.J., Burke, J., Zikmund-Fisher, B.J., Kullgren, J.T., Steinley, D., McCarthy, D.M., Roney, M., Fagerlin, A. (2016). Development of the Medical Maximizer Scale. Health Psychology, 35, 1276--1287.

Fleming, K. A., Bartholow, B. D., Hilgard, J.B., McCarthy, D. M., O'Neill, S., Steinley, D., & Sher, K. J. (2016). The alcohol sensitivity questionnaire: Evidence for construct validity.  Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 40, 880--888.

Shireman, E., Steinley, D., & Sher, K. (2015).  Sex differences in the latent class structure of alcohol use disorder: Does (dis)aggregation of indicators matter? Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 23, 291--301.

Deutsch A. R., Chemyavskiy, P., Steinley, D., & Slutske, W. S. (2015). Measuring peer socialization for adolescent substance use: A comparison of perceived and actual friends' substance use effects.  Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 76, 267-277.

Deutsch, A. R., Steinley, D., & Slutske, W. (2014). The role of gender and friends' gender on peer socialization of adolescent drinking: A prospective multilevel social network analysis.  Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 1421--1435.

Jackson, K. M., Bucholz, K. K., Wood, P. K., Steinley, D., Grant, J., & Sher, K. (2014).  Towards the characterization and validation of alcohol use disorder subtypes: Integrating consumption and symptom data.  Psychological Medicine, 44, 143--159.

McCutcheon, V., Lessov-Schlaggar, C., Steinley, D., & Bucholz, K. (2014)  Social network drinking and family history contribute equally to first-onset alcohol dependence in high risk adults.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 141, 145-148.

Winograd, R.P., Steinley, D., & Sher, K.J. (2014). Drunk personality: Reports from drinkers and knowledgeable informants. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 22, 187--197.

Littlefield, A. K., Verges, A., Rosinski, J., Steinley, D., \& Sher, K. J. (2013). Motivational typologies of drinkers: Do enhancement and coping drinkers form two distinct groups? Addiction, 108, 497--503.

Cain, A. S., Epler, A. J., Steinley, D., & Sher, K. J. (2012). Patterns of concerns related to eating, weight, and shape in young adult men: A latent transition analysis. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 45,768--775.

Talley, A., Sher, K.J., Steinley, D., Wood, P., & Littlefield, A. (2012). Patterns of alcohol use and consequences among empirically derived sexual minority subgroups. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73, 290-302.

Martin, C. S., Steinley, D., Verges, A., & Sher, K. J. (2011). The proposed 2/11 symptom algorithm for DSM-V substance use disorder is too lenient. Psychological Medicine, 41, 2008-2010.

Sher, K. J., Jackson, K. M., & Steinley, D. (2011). Alcohol use trajectories and the ubiquitous cat's cradle: Cause for concern? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 322-335.

Stein, J. H., Steinley, D., & Cropanzano, R. (2011). How and why terrorism corrupts the consistency princple of organizational justice. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32.

Cain, A. S., Epler, A. J., Steinley, D., & Sher, K. (2010). Stability and change in patterns of concerns related to eating, weight, and shape in young adult women: A latent transition analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 255-267.

Littlefield, A. K., Sher, K. J., & Steinley, D. (2010). Developmental trajectories of impulsivity and their association with alcohol use and related outcomes during emerging and young adulthood I. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 34, 1409-1416.

Martinez, J. A., Steinley, D., & Sher, K. J. (2010). Deliberately inducing alcoholism?: Empirical introduction to a novel health risk. Addiction, 105, 1767–1770.

Verges, A., Steinley, D., Trull, T. J., & Sher, K. J. (2010). It's the algorithm! Why differential rates of chronicity and comorbidity are not evidence for the validity of the abuse-dependence distinction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 650-661.

Morrow, D., Weiner, M., Steinley, D., Young, J., & Murray, M.D. (2007). Patients' health literacy and experience with instructions: Influence preferences for heart failure medication instructions. Journal of Aging and Health, 19, 575-593.

Swenson, L. P., Esposito-Smythers, C., Hunt, J. I., Hollander, B., Dyl, J., Rizzo, C. J., Steinley, D. & Spirito, A. (2007). Validation of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) with psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 1482-1490.

Morrow, D., Clark, D., Tu, W., Wu, J., Young, J., Weiner, M., Steinley, D., & Murray, M. (2006). Correlates of health literacy in patients with chronic heart failure. The Gerontologist, 46, 669-676.

Hubert, L., & Steinley, D. (2005). Agreement among Supreme Court justices: Categorical vs. continuous representation. SIAM News, 38(8), 4-7.

Morrow, D. G., Weiner, M. W., Young, J., Steinley, D., Deer, M., & Murray, M. D. (2005). Improving medication knowledge among older adults with heart failure: A patient-centered approach to instruction design. The Gerontologist, 45, 545-552.

Morrow, D., Weiner M., Young, J., Steinley, D., & Murray, M. D. (2003). Improving comprehension of medication instructions in older adults with heart failure using a patient-centered approach. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting (pp. 232-236). Santa Monica CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

BOOK REVIEWS
Steinley, D., & Wasserman, S. (2002). From the bookshelf: Short reviews of important books. Chance, 15, 36-38.

Steinley, D., & Wasserman, S. (2003).  From the bookshelf: Short reviews of important books. Chance, 16, 37-38.

Steinley, D. (2006).  Comparative review of ``Categorical Data Analysis with SAS and SPSS Applications'' and ``Categorical Data analysis Using The SAS System. 2nd ed.'' Journal of the American Statistical Association, 101, 400.

Steinley, D. (2006).  A review of three classification society meetings: 2001-2002. Journal of Classification, 23, 169-172.

Steinley, D. (2007).  A review of six classification society meetings: 2003--2006.  Journal of Classification, 23, 169--172.

Steinley, D. (2009).  Data clustering: Theory, algorithms, and applications.  Journal of the American Statistical Association, 103, 1710--1711.

Steinley, D. (2009).  Correspondence Analysis and Data Coding with Java and R by Fionn Murtagh (2005). Psychometrika.